Carbon Capture & Storage
Wettability is one of the most important factors for effective delivery and storage of CO2
ESal optimizes wettability for CO2 storage
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the capture of CO2 emissions from industrial sources and injection into deep, porous underground formations rather than release to the atmosphere. Capture and injection are developed technologies that are being constantly improved, but if the CO2 does not stay in the ground and stay there for generations, the effort is wasted. There are four mechanisms that trap CO2: stratigraphic, solubility, mineralization and residual or capillary trapping. Wettability is the critical factor in the effectiveness of residual trapping and in limiting escape from the pores of the target rock. Current protocols call for removing brine from the target reservoir to make room for the injected CO2. This means we will have to dispose and/or treat these subsurface brines adding to the cost of storage. Finding uses for these brines can dramatically impact the costs of storage.
More CO2 is stored by optimizing the target zone wettability
ESal screens storage targets for the best wettability, tests the target formations to determine pre-injection wettability, and designs the correct treatment to improve the storage targets’ wettability with RightWater®
Frequently Asked Questions
CCS is the capture of CO2 that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere and the storage of that CO2 using a method that will store the capture CO2 for long periods of time to prevent the CO2 from returning to the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide can be stored for significant periods of time in the deep ocean or underground (geological storage) as a supercritical liquid or by reacting the CO2 with other components to form a stable mineral.
There are four mechanisms that trap CO2 underground. They are 1) stratigraphic or structural traps, 2) solubility (dissolving CO2 in groundwater), 3) mineralization (formation of a stable mineral) and 4) capillary trapping which happens when the supercritical liquid is unable to move out of the pore spaces of the rock.
Supercritical CO2 is a liquid form of CO2 that is the natural state when there is sufficient pressure to change the gas into a liquid. Supercritical CO2 has a density about half that of water but has a low viscosity (very slippery). This is the standard form when large quantities of CO2 are transported by truck or pipeline.
The most important mechanism is capillary trapping.
Capillary trapping can store between 10% and 50% of the volume of the pore space and the amount is controlled by the wettability of the rock.