Water Compatibility Assessment

– Evaluate field fluids for adverse interactions (scale, souring, formation damage).

  • Requires chemical analysis of formation water and injection water.


– Analyze candidate fields using empirically-derived relationships from public-domain field and lab data.

  • Requires water, rock and oil compositions (chemistry, mineralogy, GOR, TAN+TBN, API and SARA), OOIP, cumulative oil production, water injection and production volumes (last 3 years), temperature, depth, porosity and permeability.
  • Provides evaluation of recovery potential and preliminary water source specifications.

Lab Work

– Evaluate chemistry for specific reservoir (water, rock and oil) to optimize chemistry using the modified flotation technique. 

– Determine sensitivity of wettability modification to range of target water compositions.

  • Requires formation water chemistry, reservoir samples (core, side wall, cuttings) and oil sample.



– Evaluate economics of recommended wettability modification using ESal™ proprietary model (modified Kinder-Morgan).

  • Analyze waterflood performance and multiple economic realizations based on client input.
  • Requires screening data and production data, net to gross, reservoir architecture, number and type of wells, identification of client water sources, net pay, initial and current fvf, initial oil saturation, planned active producers and injectors, planned water injection rate and client-specified oil price assumptions.
  • Client can add mineral lease shares, royalty and tax rate for estimates.
  • Provides calculated pre-tax IRR, incremental nominal oil revenues, cumulative pre-tax profits, and estimated operating costs (water treatment).


– Design optimum injection fluid chemistry.

  • Determine the optimal injected water chemistry using custom database based on experimental data coupled to standard thermodynamically-based geochemical codes (PHREEQC, Geochemist’s Workbench), including effects from water-rock interactions with reservoir mineralogy and mixing with formation water.
  • Provide target water chemistry for treated, produced water (reuse).
  • Evaluate other water sources for use as blending fluid to achieve optimal input chemistry using custom database and standard geochemical codes.

Implement In Field

  • Identify and evaluate water source.
  • Develop water treatment specifications.
  • Design of surface water treatment facility or advise on water treatment.
  • Operate water treatment facility or advise on water treatment.

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